At Duncan Firm, we understand the severe effects of a brain injury and will fight to get the compensation needed to treat someone with such a devastating injury. Our team will put you in touch with some of the nation's best brain doctors.

A brain injury affects the way a person thinks, acts, and feels. There are two main types: a traumatic brain injury and an acquired brain injury.

Traumatic Brain Injury

"Traumatic brain injury is an insult to the brain, not of a degenerative or congenital nature but caused by an external physical force, that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, which results in an impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning. It can also result in the disturbance of behavioral or emotional functioning. These impairments may be either temporary or permanent and cause partial or total functional disability or psychosocial maladjustment."
Adopted by the Brain Injury Association Board of Directors,
February 22, 1986.

Causes of Traumatic Brain Injury

  • A direct blow to the head can be great enough to injure the brain inside the skull, breaking the skull and directly injuring the brain. Causes include auto accidents, firearms, sports, and physical violence.
  • Rapid deceleration and acceleration of a person's head can make the brain move back and forth across the inside of a person's skull. Stress from the rapid movements pulls apart nerve fibers and causes damage to delicate brain tissue. Causes include auto accidents and physical violence, such as Shaken Baby Syndrome.
  • Outside force strikes the head hard enough to cause the brain to move within the skull or the force causes the skull to break or shatter and directly injures the brain.

Symptoms of a Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Dizziness, balance problems
  • Dilated (the black center of the eye is large and does not get smaller in light) or unequal size of a person's pupils
  • Vision changes (blurred vision or seeing double, not able to tolerate bright light, loss of eye movement, blindness)
  • Respiratory failure
  • Spinal fluid coming out of the ears or nose
  • Coma or semi-comatose state
  • Paralysis or poor coordination
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Confusion
  • Slow breathing rate, with an increase in blood pressure
  • Vomiting
  • Lethargy
  • Headaches
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Ringing in the ears or ability to hear
  • Emotional responses that are abnormal such as irritability, frustration, or inappropriate crying or laughing
  • Difficulty with thinking skills, attention span, memory
  • Poor judgment skills
  • Difficulty with speaking or slurred speech
  • Body numbness/tingling
  • Loss of bowel control or bladder control

Learn more about the symptoms of traumatic brain injury.

Acquired Brain Injury

"An acquired brain injury commonly results in a change in neuronal activity, which effects the physical integrity, the metabolic activity, or the functional ability of the cell. An acquired brain injury may result in mild, moderate, or severe impairments in one or more areas, including cognition, speech-language communication; memory; attention and concentration; reasoning; abstract thinking; physical functions; psychosocial behavior; and information processing."
Adopted by the Brain Injury Association Board of Directors,
March 14, 1997.

Causes of Acquired Brain Injury

  • Near-drowning or choking feeling
  • Strangulation
  • Electrical shock or being hit by lightening strike
  • Airway obstruction
  • Trauma to the head and/or neck region
  • Toxic exposure to poisonous chemicals or gases such as carbon monoxide
  • Vascular Disruption
  • Heart attack, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), aneurysm, intracranial surgery, or stroke
  • Traumatic brain injury with or without a fracture of the skull
  • Blood loss from wounds or artery impingement from forceful impact or shock
  • Infectious disease
  • Some venereal diseases, meningitis, hepatic encephalopathy, insect-carried diseases, hypo/hyperglycemia, uremic encephalopathy, seizure disorders, or AIDS
  • Intracranial tumors or metabolic disorders


  • Cognitive impairment skills that involves thinking
  • Vegetative state
  • Severe behavior problems which include psychosis, depression or hostility
  • Muscle movement disorders

Let the Duncan Firm stand up for your loved one’s rights following a brain injury. Please call 877-638-6226 or email our Little Rock TBI attorneys today to schedule a free consultation. We proudly serve the entire state of Arkansas.